Sunday, March 3, 2019

What are the basics of networks


World wide web
Institutions, companies, schools, organizations, and everything related to organization, management, work and education can no longer work without using the Internet. Working on traditional methods without reference to the Internet will be a hindrance to this institution, so many scientific and technological disciplines have been launched in universities such as telecommunications, computer and software This course will shed light on the basics of networks that must be known to everyone who is looking at this field.

Networking Basics
It is not fair that this text covers and covers the basics of networking, but it illustrates the key points in understanding the basics of networks for their application and management. Each of these points is a complete and complete science of the theories described by research, books and large scientific articles, The basics of networks must know the components and devices within them and the nature of the tasks that you do, mention the following:

Server: A computer or device in the network responsible for the maintenance of network-related data and works around the clock and throughout the week, and may be added to other tasks in addition to this task and based on the design required.
Client: A set of applications that run on personal computers or workstations and rely primarily on the server to perform its tasks.
Devices: This computer is not necessarily an integrated image, but the devices inside the computer such as: CD-ROM drive, modem, printers and others.
Transmission Media: This includes the physical conductivity of the network, such as the nature of wires and cables used: twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable and others.
Network Operating System: Includes special tasks for connecting devices and computers on a LAN.
Operating systems: These are the systems and applications that manage the operation of the device and manage the work of its basic functions, such as the basics of networks managed by computer engineers and software itself, such as Windows.
Network Interface Card-NIC: An extended card that is entered into a computer and allows it to connect to the network.
Connection Devices: In order to understand the basics of networks clearly, these devices that regulate the transfer of packets and data between devices and networks, and divided into 5 main types:
Hub: Contains multiple entries Each port connected to a particular device, when it reaches a particular package, copies and distributes it to all devices connected to these devices.
Switch: It is smarter than the Hub, revises the data and packages it receives and knows exactly where it is directed by knowing the mac address of the destination and then sending the version only to it without displaying it on all devices.
Router: Operates on an IP address and can connect more than one local network together. Unlike the switch that works only at the LAN level, one of the most important networking fundamentals is the knowledge of the router's operation principle, how it regulates data transmission, and provides confidentiality, encryption, security and accuracy of the communication process .
Gateway: Simply the point in the network that serves the gateway to another network, and its name is the gateway between the network and the other.
Bridge: The bridge connecting two local networks or two segments within the same LAN uses the same protocol.
Channel Service Unit / Digital Service Unit: These two devices are connected together in one device and the main function is to connect the digital end of the devices.
ISDN Adapter: which connects the computer to the digital communication, much like the modem, but the latter uses analogue connections in the inclusion and decryption.
Modem: An abbreviation for the demodulator modulator for any device that works to include the analogue signal and decrypt it at the same time.
Access Point: It is either a device or program that acts as a station to provide wireless connectivity to devices on a wired LAN.
Firewall: A system designed as a line of defense from digital viruses that destroy hardware and systems, and is designed to protect the hardware and software.
OSI layers
One of the most important things that the network designer, the student and those who solve their problems must be aware of what is known as the OSI Models, a virtual class structure agreed to monitor the process of data transmission and tracking any problem experienced by the system, and understanding this model facilitates understanding of the basics of networks and everything related to it Protocols and devices, consists of 7 layers:



Physical Layer.
Data Link Layer.
Network Layer.
Transport Layer.
Session Layer.
Presentation Layer.
Application Layer.

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